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When embedded systems are designed, it takes a lot of effort to meet the stringent requirements regarding the dimensions of the appliance and the density of interconnections on the PCBs.
There are four well-known ways to increase the density of interconnections and component assembly on printed circuit boards:
Decrease the size of vias and pads to make some room for wire routing
Increase the number of routes between vias by decreasing wire widths and clearances
Replace through vias with blind and buried vias
Add more layers.
All of this, however, brings up the board production costs.
But there is another way: flexible topological any-angle routing, as implemented in the TopoR (for TOPOlogical Router) PCB topology design system.
Let's consider the three key concepts: “any-angle”, “flexible” and “topological”.